Satellite-based estimates of ambient air pollution and global variations in childhood asthma prevalence.

TitleSatellite-based estimates of ambient air pollution and global variations in childhood asthma prevalence.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsAnderson RH, Butland BK, van Donkelaar A, Brauer M, Strachan DP, Clayton T, Van Dingenen R, Amann M, Brunekreef B, Cohen A, Dentener F, Lai C, Lamsal LN, Martin RV, One IPhase
JournalEnviron Health Perspect
Volume120
Issue9
Pagination1333-9
Date Published2012 Sep
ISSN1552-9924
KeywordsAdolescent, Air Pollutants, Asthma, Child, Cross-Sectional Studies, Environmental Exposure, Environmental Monitoring, Female, Humans, Male, Models, Theoretical, Nitrogen Dioxide, Ozone, Particle Size, Particulate Matter, Prevalence, Remote Sensing Technology, Socioeconomic Factors, Spacecraft, Statistics, Nonparametric
Abstract

BACKGROUND: The effect of ambient air pollution on global variations and trends in asthma prevalence is unclear.

OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to investigate community-level associations between asthma prevalence data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) and satellite-based estimates of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 µm (PM₂.₅) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂), and modelled estimates of ozone.

METHODS: We assigned satellite-based estimates of PM₂.₅ and NO₂ at a spatial resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° and modeled estimates of ozone at a resolution of 1° × 1° to 183 ISAAC centers. We used center-level prevalence of severe asthma as the outcome and multilevel models to adjust for gross national income (GNI) and center- and country-level sex, climate, and population density. We examined associations (adjusting for GNI) between air pollution and asthma prevalence over time in centers with data from ISAAC Phase One (mid-1900s) and Phase Three (2001-2003).

RESULTS: For the 13- to 14-year age group (128 centers in 28 countries), the estimated average within-country change in center-level asthma prevalence per 100 children per 10% increase in center-level PM₂.₅ and NO₂ was -0.043 [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.139, 0.053] and 0.017 (95% CI: -0.030, 0.064) respectively. For ozone the estimated change in prevalence per parts per billion by volume was -0.116 (95% CI: -0.234, 0.001). Equivalent results for the 6- to 7-year age group (83 centers in 20 countries), though slightly different, were not significantly positive. For the 13- to 14-year age group, change in center-level asthma prevalence over time per 100 children per 10% increase in PM₂.₅ from Phase One to Phase Three was -0.139 (95% CI: -0.347, 0.068). The corresponding association with ozone (per ppbV) was -0.171 (95% CI: -0.275, -0.067).

CONCLUSION: In contrast to reports from within-community studies of individuals exposed to traffic pollution, we did not find evidence of a positive association between ambient air pollution and asthma prevalence as measured at the community level.

DOI10.1289/ehp.1104724
Alternate JournalEnviron. Health Perspect.
PubMed ID22548921
PubMed Central IDPMC3440118