Robustness of intra urban land-use regression models for ultrafine particles and black carbon based on mobile monitoring

TitleRobustness of intra urban land-use regression models for ultrafine particles and black carbon based on mobile monitoring
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsKerckhoffs J., Hoek G., Vlaanderen J., van Nunen E., Messier K., Brunekreef B., Gulliver J., Vermeulen R.
JournalEnvironmental Research
Volume159
Pagination500-508
Date PublishedNov
ISBN Number0013-9351
Accession Number28866382
Keywords*Bc, *Environmental Monitoring, *LUR models, *Mobile monitoring, *Spatial variation, *Ufp, Air Pollutants/*analysis, Cities, City Planning, Particle Size, Particulate Matter/*analysis, Regression Analysis, Soot/*analysis
Abstract

Land-use regression (LUR) models for ultrafine particles (UFP) and Black Carbon (BC) in urban areas have been developed using short-term stationary monitoring or mobile platforms in order to capture the high variability of these pollutants. However, little is known about the comparability of predictions of mobile and short-term stationary models and especially the validity of these models for assessing residential exposures and the robustness of model predictions developed in different campaigns. We used an electric car to collect mobile measurements (n = 5236 unique road segments) and short-term stationary measurements (3 x 30min, n = 240) of UFP and BC in three Dutch cities (Amsterdam, Utrecht, Maastricht) in 2014-2015. Predictions of LUR models based on mobile measurements were compared to (i) measured concentrations at the short-term stationary sites, (ii) LUR model predictions based on short-term stationary measurements at 1500 random addresses in the three cities, (iii) externally obtained home outdoor measurements (3 x 24h samples; n = 42) and (iv) predictions of a LUR model developed based upon a 2013 mobile campaign in two cities (Amsterdam, Rotterdam). Despite the poor model R(2) of 15%, the ability of mobile UFP models to predict measurements with longer averaging time increased substantially from 36% for short-term stationary measurements to 57% for home outdoor measurements. In contrast, the mobile BC model only predicted 14% of the variation in the short-term stationary sites and also 14% of the home outdoor sites. Models based upon mobile and short-term stationary monitoring provided fairly high correlated predictions of UFP concentrations at 1500 randomly selected addresses in the three Dutch cities (R(2) = 0.64). We found higher UFP predictions (of about 30%) based on mobile models opposed to short-term model predictions and home outdoor measurements with no clear geospatial patterns. The mobile model for UFP was stable over different settings as the model predicted concentration levels highly correlated to predictions made by a previously developed LUR model with another spatial extent and in a different year at the 1500 random addresses (R(2) = 0.80). In conclusion, mobile monitoring provided robust LUR models for UFP, valid to use in epidemiological studies.

Short TitleEnviron ResEnviron. Res.
Alternate JournalEnvironmental research