Integrated histopathological and urinary metabonomic investigation of the pathogenesis of microcystin-LR toxicosis.

TitleIntegrated histopathological and urinary metabonomic investigation of the pathogenesis of microcystin-LR toxicosis.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsCantor GH, Beckonert O, Bollard ME, Keun HC, Ebbels TMD, Antti H, Wijsman JA, Bible RH, Breau AP, Cockerell GL, Holmes E, Lindon JC, Nicholson JK
JournalVet Pathol
Volume50
Issue1
Pagination159-71
Date Published2013 Jan
ISSN1544-2217
Abstract

Patterns of change of endogenous metabolites may closely reflect systemic and organ-specific toxic changes. The authors examined the metabolic effects of the cyanobacterial (blue-green algal) toxin microcystin-LR by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis of urinary endogenous metabolites. Rats were treated with a single sublethal dose, either 20 or 80 µg/kg intraperitoneally, and sacrificed at 2 or 7 days post dosing. Changes in the high-dose, 2-day sacrifice group included centrilobular hepatic necrosis and congestion, accompanied in some animals by regeneration and neovascularization. By 7 days, animals had recovered, the necrotizing process had ended, and the centrilobular areas had been replaced by regenerative, usually hypertrophic hepatocytes. There was considerable interanimal variation in the histologic process and severity, which correlated with the changes in patterns of endogenous metabolites in the urine, thus providing additional validation of the biomarker and biochemical changes. Similarity of the shape of the metabolic trajectories suggests that the mechanisms of toxic effects and recovery are similar among the individual animals, albeit that the magnitude and timing are different for the individual animals. Initial decreases in urinary citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, and hippurate concentrations were accompanied by a temporary increase in betaine and taurine, then creatine from 24 to 48 hours. Further changes were an increase in guanidinoacetate, dimethylglycine, urocanic acid, and bile acids. As a tool, urine can be repeatedly and noninvasively sampled and metabonomics utilized to study the onset and recovery after toxicity, thus identifying time points of maximal effect. This can help to employ histopathological examination in a guided and effective fashion.

DOI10.1177/0300985812443839
Alternate JournalVet. Pathol.
PubMed ID22552484