Impacts of a nanosized ceria additive on diesel engine emissions of particulate and gaseous pollutants.

TitleImpacts of a nanosized ceria additive on diesel engine emissions of particulate and gaseous pollutants.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsZhang J, Nazarenko Y, Zhang L, Calderon L, Lee K-B, Garfunkel E, Schwander S, Tetley TD, Chung K F, Porter AE, Ryan M, Kipen H, Lioy PJ, Mainelis G
JournalEnviron Sci Technol
Volume47
Issue22
Pagination13077-85
Date Published2013 Nov 19
ISSN1520-5851
Abstract

Fuel additives incorporating nanosized ceria have been increasingly used in diesel engines as combustion promoters. However, few studies have assessed the impact of these nanotechnology-based additives on pollutant emissions. Here, we systematically compare emission rates of particulate and gaseous pollutants from a single-cylinder, four-cycle diesel engine using fuel mixes containing nanoceria of varying concentrations. The test fuels were made by adding different amounts of a commercial fuel additive Envirox into an ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel at 0 (base fuel), 0.1-, 1-, and 10-fold the manufacturer-recommended concentration of 0.5 mL Envirox per liter of fuel. The addition of Envirox resulted in ceria-concentration-dependent emission reductions of CO2, CO, total particulate mass, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These reductions at the manufacturer-recommended doping concentration, however, were accompanied by a substantial increase of certain other air pollutants, specifically the number of ultrafine particles (+32%), NO(x) (+9.3%), and the particle-phase benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalence quotient (+35%). Increasing fuel ceria concentrations also led to decreases in the size of emitted particles. Given health concerns related to ultrafine particles and NO(x), our findings call for additional studies to further evaluate health risks associated with the use of nanoceria additives in various engines under various operating conditions.

DOI10.1021/es402140u
Alternate JournalEnviron. Sci. Technol.
PubMed ID24144266
Grant ListG0700926 / / Medical Research Council / United Kingdom
P30 ES005022 / ES / NIEHS NIH HHS / United States