Food sources of dietary sodium in the Japanese adult population: the international study of macro-/micronutrients and blood pressure (INTERMAP)

TitleFood sources of dietary sodium in the Japanese adult population: the international study of macro-/micronutrients and blood pressure (INTERMAP)
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsOkuda N., Okayama A., Miura K., Yoshita K., Saito S., Nakagawa H., Sakata K., Miyagawa N., Chan Q., Elliott P., Ueshima H., Stamler J.
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Date Published02/2016
Type of Article10.1007/s00394-016-1177-1
ISBN Number1436-6215
Abstract

PURPOSE: It is often reported that Na intake levels are higher in Japan than in western countries. Detailed analysis of food intake and its association with Na intake are necessary for supporting further decreases in Na consumption in Japan. We investigated the association between Na and food intake by food group using data from the Japanese participants of the INTERMAP Study. METHOD: Results from the Japanese participants of the INTERMAP Study who did not use antihypertensive medication and/or consume a reduced Na diet were used (531 men and 518 women, aged 40-59 years), obtained from four 24-h dietary recalls and two 24-h urine collections from each participant. We developed a classification system with 46 food group classifications; food consumption and Na intake from these groups were compared across quartiles of participants determined by 24-h urinary Na excretion per unit of body weight (UNa/BW). RESULTS: Average daily Na intake from Japanese high-Na foods was 2552 mg/day. Participants with a higher UNa/BW consumed a significantly greater amount of high-Na Japanese foods, such as salted fish (P = 0.001) and miso soup (P < 0.001). They also had greater amount of rice (P = 0.001). Participants with lower UNa/BW consumed a significantly greater amount of western foods, such as bread (P < 0.001) and milk and dairy products (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Detailed analyses of various Japanese and western food intakes in addition to Na intake were performed. These results can be used to help draw up effective programs for the reduction in Na intake and prevention of prehypertension/hypertension in the Japanese population.

Short TitleEur. J. Nutr.