Comparative metabonomic analysis of hepatotoxicity induced by acetaminophen and its less toxic meta-isomer

TitleComparative metabonomic analysis of hepatotoxicity induced by acetaminophen and its less toxic meta-isomer
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsKyriakides M., Maitre L., Stamper B.D, Mohar I., Kavanagh T.J, Foster J., Wilson I.D, Holmes E., Nelson S.D, Coen M.
JournalArchives of Toxicology
Date Published01/2016
Type of Article10.1007/s00204-015-1655-x
ISBN Number1432-0738
KeywordsHepatotoxicity, Metabonomics/Metabolic Phenotyping, N-acetyl-m-aminophenol (AMAP), N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP), Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Abstract

The leading cause of drug-induced liver injury in the developed world is overdose with N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP). A comparative metabonomic approach was applied to the study of both xenobiotic and endogenous metabolic profiles reflective of in vivo exposure to APAP (300 mg/kg) and its structural isomer N-acetyl-m-aminophenol (AMAP; 300 mg/kg) in C57BL/6J mice, which was anchored with histopathology. Liver and urine samples were collected at 1 h, 3 h and 6 h post-treatment and analyzed by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (liver only). Histopathology revealed the presence of centrilobular necrosis from 3 h post-APAP treatment, while an AMAP-mediated necrotic endpoint was not observed within the timescale of this study, yet two of five treated mice showed minimal centrilobular eosinophilia. The (1)H-NMR xenobiotic metabolic profile of APAP-treated animals comprised of mercapturate (urine and liver) and glutathionyl (liver) conjugates detected at 1 h post-treatment. This finding corroborated the hepatic endogenous metabolic profile which showed depletion of glutathione from 1 h onwards. In contrast, AMAP glutathionyl conjugates were not detected, nor was AMAP-induced depletion of hepatic glutathione observed. APAP administration induced significant endogenous hepatic metabolic perturbations, primarily linked to oxidative and energetic stress, and perturbation of amino acid metabolism. Early depletion of glutathione was followed by depletion of additional sulfur-containing metabolites, while altered levels of mitochondrial and glycolytic metabolites indicated a disruption of energy homeostasis. In contrast, AMAP administration caused minimal, transient, distinct metabolic perturbations and by 6 h the metabolic profiles of AMAP-treated mice were indistinguishable from those of controls.

Short TitleArch Toxicol