Chemical composition and source apportionment of ambient, household, and personal exposures to PM in communities using biomass stoves in rural China.

TitleChemical composition and source apportionment of ambient, household, and personal exposures to PM in communities using biomass stoves in rural China.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsLai AM, Carter E, Shan M, Ni K, Clark S, Ezzati M, Wiedinmyer C, Yang X, Baumgartner J, Schauer JJ
JournalSci Total Environ
Volume646
Pagination309-319
Date Published2019 Jan 01
ISSN1879-1026
Abstract

Fine particulate matter (PM) has health effects that may depend on its sources and chemical composition. Few studies have quantified the composition of personal and area PM in rural settings over the same time period. Yet, this information would shed important light on the sources influencing personal PM exposures. This study investigated the sources and chemical composition of 40 personal exposure, 40 household, and 36 ambient PM samples collected in the non-heating and heating seasons in rural southwestern China. Chemical analysis included black carbon (BC), water-soluble components (ions, organic carbon), elements, and organic tracers. Source apportionment was conducted using organic tracer concentrations in a Chemical Mass Balance model. Biomass burning was the largest identified PM source contributor to household (average, SD: 48 ± 11%) and exposures (31 ± 6%) in both seasons, and ambient PM in winter (20 ± 4%). Food cooking also contributed to household and personal PM, reaching approximately half of the biomass contributions. Secondary inorganic aerosol was the major identified source in summertime ambient PM (32 ± 14%), but was present in all samples (summer: 10 ± 3% [household], 13 ± 6% [exposures]; winter: 18 ± 2% [ambient], 7 ± 2% [household], 8 ± 2% [exposures]). Dust concentrations and fractional contribution to total PM were higher in summer exposure samples (7 ± 4%) than in ambient or household samples (6 ± 1% and 2 ± 1%, respectively). Indoor sources comprised up to one-fifth of ambient PM, and outdoor sources (vehicles, secondary aerosols) contributed up to 15% of household PM. While household sources were the main contributors to PM exposures in terms of mass, inorganic components of personal exposures differed from household samples. Based on these findings, health-focused initiatives to reduce harmful PM exposures may consider a coordinated approach to address both indoor and outdoor PM source contributors.

DOI10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.322
Alternate JournalSci. Total Environ.
PubMed ID30055493