Carcinogenicity of ambient air pollution: use of biomarkers, lessons learnt and future directions.

TitleCarcinogenicity of ambient air pollution: use of biomarkers, lessons learnt and future directions.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2015
AuthorsDemetriou CA, Vineis P
JournalJ Thorac Dis
Volume7
Issue1
Pagination67-95
Date Published01/2015
ISSN2072-1439
Abstract

The association between ambient air pollution (AAP) exposure and lung cancer risk has been investigated in prospective studies and the results are generally consistent, indicating that long-term exposure to air pollution can cause lung cancer. Biomarkers can enhance research on the health effects of air pollution by improving exposure assessment, increasing the understanding of mechanisms, and enabling the investigation of individual susceptibility. In this review, we assess DNA adducts as biomarkers of exposure to AAP and early biological effect, and DNA methylation as biomarker of early biological change and discuss critical issues arising from their incorporation in AAP health impact evaluations, such as confounding, individual susceptibilities, timing, intensity and duration of exposure, and investigated tissue. DNA adducts and DNA methylation are treated as paradigms. However, the lessons, learned from their use in the examination of AAP carcinogenicity, can be applied to investigations of other biomarkers involved in AAP carcinogenicity.

DOI10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2014.12.31
Alternate JournalJ Thorac Dis
PubMed ID25694819
PubMed Central IDPMC4311074